Preparation and characterization of natural hydroxyapatite from tilapia bones and scales for biomedical applications

Ahmad Fara, Ahmad Norman Khalis (2018) Preparation and characterization of natural hydroxyapatite from tilapia bones and scales for biomedical applications. Doctoral thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.


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Hydroxyapatite, HA (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is well known as a calcium phosphate mineral phase which is widely used as an implant material. HA derived from natural sources have received considerable interest from researchers due to the presence of trace elements (CO32-, Na+ and Mg2+) beneficial for bone metabolism. Thus, in the present work, HA from Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) bones and scales were successfully extracted by calcination technique in neutral atmosphere. In order to produce HA with close composition to human bone, the calcination parameters such as temperatures, holding time and heating rate were manipulated. Results obtained indicated that treatment at 600 °C for 1 hour with 10 °C/min increments showed better characteristics for the desired HA as determined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analyses. The extracted HA contained nano-sized grains (72 nm and 65 nm) with high specific surface areas of 88 m2/g and 57 m2/g for the bones and scales, respectively. The study found that the broad and low crystallinity XRD peaks obtained corresponded to both HA samples and were related to the presence of nano-sized crystals and trace elements in a lattice structure. The substitution of carbonate ions in the phosphate and hydroxyl sites indicated the presence of AB-type carbonate in bones and scales. The calcination temperature was identified to have influenced the thermal stability of both extracted HA, where decomposition of HA to secondary phases such as β-TCP and CaO had occurred at 1200 °C. The presence of Mg2+ in the HA composition had accelerated its decomposition at the earlier temperature of 1000 °C. Meanwhile, varying the calcination holding time and heating rate had enabled control of the amount of CO32- occurrence in the HA composition in range between 1 and 9 wt%. The presence of this ion had increased the degradability of the HA. In addition, Na+ and Mg2+ also had significant impact on the bioactivity of the extracted HA. Thus, HA from fish bones was identified to be more bioactive than the HA from fish scales due to the presence of extra amounts of Na+ and Mg2+ in the HA composition.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering > Department of Mechanical Engineering
Depositing User: Mrs. Sabarina Che Mat
Date Deposited: 06 Jul 2021 06:40
Last Modified: 06 Jul 2021 06:40

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