Anti-cropping digital image watermarking using Sudoku

Ahmad Khalid, Shamsul Kamal and Mat Deris, Mustafa and Mohamad, Kamaruddin Malik (2013) Anti-cropping digital image watermarking using Sudoku. International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing, 4 (2/3). pp. 169-177. ISSN 1741-847X


Official URL:


Many digital image watermarking schemes have been developed to embed copyright information into an image. However, an attacker may reuse parts of a watermarked image by cropping out unwanted parts. Several techniques have been designed to overcome this attack but due to their limited redundancy approach, some section of the images can still be retrieved without detectable watermark. In this paper, a new watermarking scheme that is robust against severe cropping using Sudoku is proposed. It is based on Sudoku's permutation property that allows evenly distributed copies of watermark pieces in all parts of the cover image. A valid Sudoku solution is used during the embedding as well as during the detection of the watermark. Using classic 9 × 9 Sudoku, the scheme demonstrated robustness of up to 94% of random cropping.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:watermarking; Sudoku; cropping; redundant embedding
Subjects:Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Calculating machines > QA75.5 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions:Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology > Department of Information Security
ID Code:4542
Deposited By:Normajihan Abd. Rahman
Deposited On:02 Jan 2014 15:22
Last Modified:02 Jan 2014 15:22

Repository Staff Only: item control page