Wireless electromagnetic radiation assessment based on the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR): a review case study

Abdul-Al, Mohamed and I. Amar, Ahmed S. and Elfergani, Issa and Littlehales, Richard and Parchin, Naser Ojaroudi and Al-Yasir, Yasir and Chan, Hwang See and Zhou, Dawei and Zainal Abidin, Zuhairiah and Alibakhshikenari, Mohammad and Zebiri, Chemseddine and Elmegri, Fauzi and Abusitta, Musa and Ullah, Atta and Abdussalam, Fathi M. A. and Rodriguez, Jonathan and McEwan, Neil J. and Noras, James and Hodgetts, Russell and Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2022) Wireless electromagnetic radiation assessment based on the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR): a review case study. Electronics, 11 (511). pp. 2-31.

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Employing electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in new wireless communication and sensing technologies has substantially increased the level of human exposure to EMF waves. This paper presents a useful insight into the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological media that is defined by the heat generation due to induced currents and dielectric loss. The specific absorption rate (SAR) defines the heating amount in a biological medium that is irradiated by an electromagnetic field value. The paper reviews the radio frequency hazards due to the SAR based on various safety standards and organisations, including a detailed investigation of previously published work in terms of modelling and measurements. It also summarises the most common techniques utilised between 1978 and 2021, in terms of the operational frequency spectrum, bandwidth, and SAR values.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Electromagnetic fields; EMF; SAR; radio frequency hazards
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering > TK5101-6720 Telecommunication. Including telegraphy, telephone, radio, radar, television
Depositing User: Mr. Abdul Rahim Mat Radzuan
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2022 02:36
Last Modified: 07 Apr 2022 02:36
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/6893

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