Development and evaluation of linerboard made from soda-anthraquinone treated coconut coir fiber for protective packaging

Main, Nor Mazlana (2018) Development and evaluation of linerboard made from soda-anthraquinone treated coconut coir fiber for protective packaging. Doctoral thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia.

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Abstract

This research aimed to develop a linerboard made from coconut coir fiber (acts as a reinforcing fiber) blended with old corrugated container (OCC)/ dry strength agent (DSA) with high burst and ring crush strength properties. This newly developed linerboard would be an alternative source of commercial Malaysian packaging material containing DSA, OCC and industrial long fiber (ILF). Fiber characterization, soda-AQ pulping optimization, mechanical treatment (beating) and blending process of the coir fiber were investigated to optimize the characteristics of this linerboard. The coir fibers were characterized using chemical and morphological analyses, to assess the fiber’s potential for the production of pulp and paper. Chemical analysis was performed according to Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) Standards, while the morphological properties were measured using a Quantimeter image analyzer. From the fiber characterization, it was found that; the chemical composition of fiber was suitable for a pulping process; the fiber was short fiber with an average length of 0.84 ± 0.17 mm; and the fiber had a thin wall dimension, offering better fiber bonding during the papermaking process. Soda-AQ pulping was optimized from nine (9) runs of the experiment. The condition of 18% active alkali (AA) and 1.5 hrs cooking time was chosen for mechanical treatment (beating). This condition had provided the highest screened yield (48.99%), a low reject yield (0.27%), high viscosity (11.73 cP), and the preferred Kappa number (41), which were acceptable for unbleached linerboard production. Since beating treatment could strengthen the coir pulp, evaluation at various revolutions (1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000) was carried out. The optimum beating revolution was obtained from the intersection between freeness and burst index; which was at 2000 revolutions. By using this revolution, the burst index of 4.57 kPa.m2/g and ring crush index of 1.76 Nm2/g was obtained. The optimum beating revolution was further used in the blending process. Before linerboard production, the preferred DSA was determined, which was amphoteric polyacrylamide (aPAM) with 1.5% dosage. Series of blends containing coir, aPAM, ILF and OCC were formulated. It was observed that the blending ratio of 10/90/1.5 (coir/OCC/aPAM) was the ideal ratio and chosen as selected formulation. This selection was made based on the values of burst index (3.37 kPa.m2/g) and ring crush index (1.90 Nm2/g), which fulfilled the minimum requirement by the Malaysian industrial linerboard. After the fabrication of the corrugated board using 10/90/1.5 (coir/OCC/aPAM) linerboard and commercial flute, the cushioning performance was assessed using a stress-energy method. The effectiveness of this new corrugated board was attained from the minimum G values (fragility product) and dynamic cushion curves. The results showed that this new corrugated board was comparable with the commercial corrugated board. As for the conclusion, with the fiber characterization, soda-AQ pulping and mechanical treatment (beating) optimization, with the consideration of the blending process effects, it was recommended that the used of 10/90/1.5 (Coir/OCC/DSA) linerboard be suitable for the additional component of corrugated board. This alternative linerboard has high potential to be used in container production for protective packaging application. In addition, the used of coir fiber as short fiber in the blending process may replace the using of imported long fiber as commonly used in Malaysian industrial linerboard.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA401-492 Materials of engineering and construction. Mechanics of materials
Depositing User: Mrs. Sabarina Che Mat
Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2021 07:18
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2021 07:18
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/707

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