Correlating bender element and electromagnetic measurements to evaluate clay’s stiffness

Chan, Chee-Ming and Mohd Jenu, Mohd Zarar Correlating bender element and electromagnetic measurements to evaluate clay’s stiffness. International Journal of GEOMATE, 9 (1). pp. 1370-1374. ISSN 2186-2982


Official URL:


Soil’s stiffness is usually measured in the laboratory in an indirect manner, such as by derivation from the gradient of a stress-strain plot. It requires numerous tests and may be compounded by errors from the original measurement itself. As such, the bender element test has become rather popular among researchers for determining the small strain moduli of soils with minimal / temporal disturbance to the specimens. This paper examines the possibility of relating the bender element data with the dielectric constant obtained from the same soil specimen using an electromagnetic test setup. As both tests are non-destructive, they can be easily repeated on the same specimen over a period of time without the necessity of duplicate specimens. A clay sample was used in the present study, with varying water content corresponding to different 1-dimensional compression stresses. It was generally found that the resulting stiffness change was detectable from both the shear wave velocity (vs) obtained from the bender element tests, as well as the dielectric constant (ε) of the electromagnetic measurements, with fairly good correspondence between the two. These results shed light on the possibility of relating relevant geotechnical parameters with both the measurements for establishing a unique set of signatures for stiffness monitoring and determination in soils.

Item Type:Article
Uncontrolled Keywords:stiffness; bender element; electromagnetic waves; dielectric constant
Subjects:T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA703-711 Engineering geology. Rock mechanics. Soil mechanics.
Divisions:Faculty of Engineering Technology > Department of Civil Engineering Technology
ID Code:7425
Deposited By:Normajihan Abd. Rahman
Deposited On:04 Feb 2016 15:05
Last Modified:04 Feb 2016 15:05

Repository Staff Only: item control page