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Reducing sintering temperature of Claytan stoneware using two different fluxes (soda lime silicate and borax decahydrate)

Abdul Bakil, Siti Natrah (2017) Reducing sintering temperature of Claytan stoneware using two different fluxes (soda lime silicate and borax decahydrate). Masters thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.

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Abstract

Each year, the use of gasses for sintering stoneware in kiln furnace was gradually increasing. Therefore, reducing sintering temperature can help a stoneware production company such as Claytan Sdn Bhd in reducing their production costs. Stoneware consists of three main ingredients which are clay, silica, and flux (feldspar). In order to reduce sintering temperature which is currently used at 1150 °C, it can be carried out using fluxes with melting temperature lower than feldspar. In this research, five different flux compositions of soda lime silicate and borax decahydrate were used from 3 wt% to 10 wt%. Raw material from Claytan stoneware went on the process of crushing and sieving until a particle size of 81 µm was obtained. After that, the powder was mixed with two different flux compositions of soda lime silicate and borax decahydrate according to predetermine composition. 10 mg of mixture was analysed for thermal decomposition using TGA - DTA. Next, powder was compacted using dry pressing at pressure 40 MPa to produce rectangular bar. The rectangular bar was then sintered at different temperatures of 950 °C, 1000 °C, 1050 °C, 1100 °C, and 1150 °C. All samples were analysed by X - ray fluorescence (XRF), X - ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy (ICP - MS), Energy dispersion X - ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physical tests which include linear shrinkage, water absorption, and bulk density were also carried out. Lastly, mechanical testing such as modulus of rupture (MOR) and hardness were measured. For conclusion, the results show that optimum soda lime silicate will reduce the temperature from 1150 °C to 1100 °C. Meanwhile, the additional borax decahydrate resulted in reducing of sintering temperature to 1050 °C.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: T Technology > TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy
Depositing User: Mr. Mohammad Shaifulrip Ithnin
Date Deposited: 13 Aug 2018 03:28
Last Modified: 13 Aug 2018 03:28
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/10249
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