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Processing of porous 316L stainless steel (SS316L) foams using compaction method for different space holders and different sintering environment

Mahammed Rafter, Murni Faridah (2017) Processing of porous 316L stainless steel (SS316L) foams using compaction method for different space holders and different sintering environment. Masters thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.


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The purpose of this study was to produce 316L Stainless Steel (SS316L) foams via compaction method that are free from oxidation and to examine the suitable space holder in producing SS316L foams in variety of sintering environment in order to characterise the properties of as-sintered SS316L foams. In this study, the raw material used was SS316L alloy, whereas the binder was polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the space holders used were urea and starch. The SS316L, PEG and the space holders were mixed together by using ball milling machine without ball for about 15 minutes. The powder mixture was compacted using the Carver Hydraulic Press machine by applying 3 tons of pressure. The SS316L foam samples were sintered in various sintering environment which were in argon (tube furnace), air (muffle furnace), and vacuum (vacuum furnace). The compositions for SS316L alloy were 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 wt%. The sintering temperature were 1100°C, 1150°C, 1200°C, 1250°C and 1300°C with heating and cooling rate at 2°C/min with the soaking time during sintering was 90 minutes. The characterisation of the SS316L foams was performed by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Diffraction X-ray (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The physical properties of SS316L foam was performed by using porosity and density analysis. The average pore size of urea samples were in the range of 178.10 - 357.79 µm (argon), and 130.62 - 181.46 µm (air). The average porosity was within the range 10.90 - 56.22% (argon), and 8.43 - 54.70% (air). The average bulk density was between 1.76 - 4.36 g/cm3 (argon), and 1.74 - 4.02 g/cm3 (air). For starch samples, the average pore size was within range 130.07 - 445.92 µm (argon), and 43.86 - 85.77 (air) µm. The average porosity was in the range of 10.61 - 61.89% (argon), 13.59 - 60.77% (air), and 10.94 - 26.20% (vacuum). The average bulk density was 0.83 - 7.44 g/cm3 (argon), 1.09 - 3.20 g/cm3 (air), and 2.72 - 5.07 g/cm3 (vacuum). The urea is the most suitable space holder that executed in air (muffle furnace), and starch in vacuum (vacuum furnace). All the samples successfully produced the interconnected opened pores with struts.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA401-492 Materials of engineering and construction. Mechanics of materials
Depositing User: Mr. Mohammad Shaifulrip Ithnin
Date Deposited: 13 Aug 2018 03:28
Last Modified: 13 Aug 2018 03:28
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/10250
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