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Photocatalytic degradation of palm oil mill secondary effluent

Hairom, Nur Hanis Hayati and Abd Hadi, Nurul Aisyah and Ismail, Nurul Hana and Zainuri, Nur Zarifah and Abu Bakar Sidik, Dilaelyana and Desa, Amira Liyana and Misdan, Nurasyikin and Yusof, Norhaniza and Mohammad, Abdul Wahab (2018) Photocatalytic degradation of palm oil mill secondary effluent. In: Sustainable Environmental Technology. Penerbit UTHM, pp. 53-65.

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Palm oil industry is one of the industries that has major disposal problem in disposing the lignocelluloic biomass such as oil palm trunks (OPT), oil palm fronds (OPF), empty fruits bunches (EFB) and palm pressed fibres (PPF), palm shells and palm oil mill effluent (POME) [1]. Amongst all waste produced, POME is the most difficult waste to treat due to its high volume generated [2]. POME consists of 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% of oil and 4-5% and total solid. Although it was said that POME is nontoxic, however the abundance of POME in water stream could lead to oxygen depletion in water stream as POME contains high amount of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) which later on could lead to plant growth in aquatic region. POME also consists of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone (DOE 1999). The treatment of POME generally undergo ponding system, open tank digester and extended aeration system, or closed anaerobic digester and land application system. Palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) is the result of treatment of POME and is characterized by having a thick, brownish color and bad odor wastewater. Although POME was claimed to be treated with one of the systems, several studies showed that the POMSE still exceed the standard discharge limit set by both Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia and Environment Quality Act (EQA) 1974. Therefore, the treatment of POMSE is very important because the concentration of pollution and organic contained could affect the stream and posed some hazard to the aquatic communities, environment and also human health. One of the alternative treatment method that can be implemented to treat and remove various organic impurities in POMSE is photocatalytic degradation process due to its advantages including ease of setup and operation at ambient temperatures, no need for postprocesses, low consumption of energy and consequently low cost [3]. In photocatalysis process, the photocatalyst generates electron hole pairs with free electrons produced in the empty conduction band leaving positive holes in the valence band which played a significant role in photodegradation of dye molecules [4]. Nanoparticles are known as one of the good photocatalysts for the degradation of wastewater. It was reported that nanotechnology offers the detection and an efficient removal of chemical and biological substances include pollutants and germs in the area of water purification [5]. Nanoparticles are attracting a great attention from biological, agricultural and pharmaceutical industries due to their structures that have high specific surface areas, potential for achieving specific processes and selectivity, high photosensitivity, stability and large band gap. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the nanoparticles that is believed can purify water or treat wastewater due to its characteristics such as effective wastewater purification method due to its efficacy in decomposing and mineralizing the hazardous organic pollutants as well as the good adsorption of ultraviolet (UV) light [6]. Recently, Desa (2017) revealed that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in presence of polyvinylprrolidone (PVP) has high potential for photocatalytic degradation of industrial dye wastewater. However, the potential of ZnO-PVP in treating POMSE is not been concealed. The characteristic of ZnO-PVP nanoparticles as well as the optimum condition of photocatalytic degradation in presence of ZnO-PVP for POMSE treatment with the analysis of also not been well discovered. Therefore in this study, the characteristic of ZnO-PVP nanoparticles has been examined in order to observe their purity, crystallinity, properties of chemical bonding and its nature. Consequently, the optimum condition of photocatalytic degradation of POMSE in presence of ZnO-PVP nanoparticles with their analysis will also be identified.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
Depositing User: Mr Abdul Rahim Mat Radzuan
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2019 02:43
Last Modified: 31 Oct 2019 02:43
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/11910
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