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Anionic surfactants in environmental water samples: a review

Hashim, Nor Haslina and Abu Bakar, Amnani and Awang, Zarizi and Mohd Arish @ Arshad, Nur Aini (2018) Anionic surfactants in environmental water samples: a review. In: Sustainable Environmental Technology. Penerbit UTHM, pp. 67-78. ISBN 978-967-2216-44-5

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Abstract

The complexity of environmental chemical exposure become a major concern because an essential objective of the global research effort is to improve life quality feature. Currently, environmental monitoring has become even more critical as human population increase, with the increasing strains on the environment. Surprisingly, enormous quantities of anionic surfactants (AS) are being used in households and industry every day, and most of it was end up with dispersed in different environmental compartments such as soil, water, and sediment [1]. Surfactants are compounds with molecules having a hydrophobic part such as a nonpolar hydrocarbon chain, and a hydrophilic one, either ionic or non-ionic, but polar. Due to this molecular structure, surfactants tend to organize their molecules based on hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions, at the interface of two non-miscible different media, acting as tensioactive compounds. Synthetic detergents, commonly called syndets, are anionic, cationic or nonionic surfactants, of which anionic ones are widely used, as sodium sulphates, sulphonates, tripolyphosphates, or silicates [2]. Furthermore, their production and consumption continue to grow every year. The major sources of surfactants in the environment are discharges from household, textile industry, cosmetic industry, industrial laundering or other cleaning operation using detergent formulations [3]. As a result of their wide applications, AS residues in natural waters can cause serious damage to the environment by inhibiting biological activity and promoting the diffusion of oily pollutants. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the elevated consumption of surfactants worldwide is a reason for concern in terms of global pollution. Clearly, AS that possess hydrophobic alkyl chains (nonpolar) and hydrophilic groups (polar) are indispensable in the detergent industry; for emulsification, lubrication, and catalysis; and for their well-known interaction with biomolecules such as proteins, DNA, and peptides, even possessing the ability to penetrate cell membranes [4],[5]. Moreover, exposure to AS can cause irritation to human eyes and skin. Ribelles and his coworkers reviewed the literature from the period and found little evidence that at high concentrations of SDS cause death of fishes primarily due to three modes: decrease in surface tension, destruction of tissue and alteration of biomacromolecules[6]. Thus, the development of effective methods for the chemical analysis of surfactant is importance. As well-known surfactant analysis methods, such as the methylene blue active substances method (MBAS), ion-selective electrodes, capillary electrophoresis, colorimetric and spectrometric techniques, require exhaustive procedures, large amounts of toxic solvents and high cost. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop efficient methods for environmental monitoring.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering Technology > Department of Chemical Engineering Technology
Depositing User: Mr Abdul Rahim Mat Radzuan
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2019 02:43
Last Modified: 31 Oct 2019 02:43
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/11911
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