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Microstructure analyses on the effect of incorporating cigarette butts in fired clay bricks

Abdul Kadir, Aeslina and Mohajerani, Abbas (2011) Microstructure analyses on the effect of incorporating cigarette butts in fired clay bricks. In: The Nineteenth Annual International Conference on COMPOSITES/NANO ENGINEERING (ICCE - 19) ICCE-19, July 24 - 30. 2011, Shanghai, China.


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Worldwide, cigarette butts (CBs) are one of the most common types of litter. The United States Department of Agriculture estimates that in 2004 over 5.5 trillion cigarettes were produced in the world. This is equivalent to an estimated 1.2 million tonnes of CBs waste per year. These figures are expected to increase by more than 50% by 2025, mainly due to an increase in world population [1]. In Australia alone, an estimated 25 to 30 billion filtered cigarettes are smoked each year; of these, an estimated 7 billion are littered. CBs accumulate in the environment mainly due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters. Filters have long term effects on the urban environment, especially in waterways and run-offs. Toxic chemicals trapped in the CB filters can leach, thus causing serious damage to the environment [2]. Recycling CBs is problematic because there are no easy mechanisms or procedures to assure efficient and economical separation and recycling of the entrapped chemicals. An alternative could be to incorporate CBs in a sustainable composite building material such as fired bricks. Brick is one of the most accommodating masonry units as a building material due to its properties. Attempts have been made to incorporate waste in the production of bricks; for instance, the use of rubber, limestone dust and wood sawdust, processed waste tea, fly ash, polystyrene and sludge [3]. Recycling of such wastes by incorporating them into building materials is a practical solution to the pollution problem. In addition, adding carbonaceous industrial wastes has also been demonstrated to be an efficient and environmentally advantageous way of reducing fuel use for brick-making. This paper describes some of the procedures and results from a study on incorporating CBs into fired clay bricks. Physical and mechanical properties of several brick samples with different CB contents are presented. The main objective of this paper is to present the microstructure analyses on the effect of incorporating CBs in the fired clay bricks.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD172-193 Environmental pollution
Divisions: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering > Department of Water and Environmental Engineering
Depositing User: M.Iqbal Zainal A
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2011 03:43
Last Modified: 20 Jan 2012 02:28
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/1983
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