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The chemical properties of soft clay in KUiTTHO at Southern Peninsular Malaysia

Mohd Yusof, Khairul Nizar and Phuah , Phei Guan and Ridzuan, Mohd Baharudin The chemical properties of soft clay in KUiTTHO at Southern Peninsular Malaysia. In: FEIIC Seminar on Engineering and Technology 2006, 4-5 September 2006 , Putrajaya.


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Geoconstruction element especially buried structures like concrete footings and foundation can be affected by chemical reaction involving sulphate, chloride, ammonium, and others element that present in high concentration in clay along with a source of moisture. The sulphate will reacts with cement within concrete causing it to expand, crack and resulting disintegration failure. The recent evidence of this harmful chemical attack is the Middle Ring Road 2 (MRR2) incidence in Kuala Lumpur. The remedial action to sulphate attack is normally to remove all the defective concrete and contaminated hardcore and replace them which is a disruptive and costly process. This paper has reviewed on some major chemical properties of clay soil in KUiTTHO for the suitability for geoconstruction. The chemical properties that have been determined were cations (calcium, natrium, magnesium, and kalium), anions (sulphate, chloride), pH, soil organic matter (loss on ignition and organic content), cation exchange capacity and conductivity. The entire chemical laboratory tests were conducted based on BS 1377. The soil sample was taken at depth 0.5 m to 5.5 m from RECESS. The results obtained are pH ranged from 2.87 to 7.11; conductivity ranged from 1446 μs/cm to 1786 μs/cm; loss on ignition ranged from 4.76 % to 11.68 %; organic content ranged from 4.47 % to 9.22 %, sulphate content ranged from 0.55 % to 1.00 %; chloride content ranged from 0.64 % to 0.97 %; kalium content ranged from 0.57 % to 2.67 %; magnesium ranged from 0.15 % to 5.16 %, calcium content ranged from 0.1 % to 5.4 %; natrium content ranged from 0.01 % to 0.13 %; and cation exchange capacity ranged from 4.86 meq/100g to 36.21 meq/100g. The sulphate-attack test was carried out on concrete cubes by expose to the sulphate solution that prepared in accordance to sulphate concentration of KUiTTHO clay. From the chemical testing, the results shows that KUiTTHO clay are categorized as DS-3 (design sulphate class) in accordance to BS 8500-1:2002, Hence, the minimum cement or combination content of dense fully compacted concrete for foundation design are ranged from 340 kg/m3 to 400 kg/m3.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Uncontrolled Keywords: sulphate; chloride; chemical concentration; anion; concentration
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
Depositing User: Normajihan Abd. Rahman
Date Deposited: 28 Aug 2012 08:39
Last Modified: 28 Aug 2012 08:39
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/2734
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