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Elemental mass balance of Na, Cl and B for the turf grass irrigated with laundry and bathtub greywater

Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya Saphira and Mohd Kassim, Amir Hashim and Anda, Martin and Dallas, Stewart (2014) Elemental mass balance of Na, Cl and B for the turf grass irrigated with laundry and bathtub greywater. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 8 (15). pp. 158-165. ISSN 1991-8178

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Reusing greywater from laundry and bathtub is an option for residents wanting to keep their gardens and lawns green, especially when water restrictions are in place during summer period. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of laundry and bathtub greywater irrigation in sands on the growth of couch grass (Cynodondactylon L.) sod in a tank experimental study. Untreated laundry and bathtub greywater collected from a residential home were monitored for sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and boron (B), as these elements are dominant in household detergent and cleaning products. The turf grasses were planted in the modified aquarium tank with triplicate for each irrigation type. Irrigation sources included (i) 100% potable water as a control (TW) (ii) untreated full cycle laundry water (LGW) (iii) untreated bathtub water (BGW) over 24 weeks. The reduction on soil hydraulic conductivity was tested using double rings infiltrometer. A mass balance was carried out to determine the amount of Na, Cl and B flowing into and out of the tank. The results showed that the high salt (Na, Cl) and B content was significant in laundry greywater compared to bathtub. Irrigation with laundry and bathtub greywater without fertilizer addition was insufficient to sustain the turf growth. Long-term use of laundry and bathtub greywater can lead to Na, Cl and B accumulation in the soil and subsequent uptake by the turf grass. Consequently, the turf grass requires an addition of nutrients in its fertilization program in order to sustain the turf grass growth.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: laundry; bathtub; greywater; turf grass; soil; salt; boron
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering > TD194-196 Environmental effects of industries and plants. Special environmental pollutants
Divisions: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering > Department of Water and Environmental Engineering
Depositing User: Dr Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2014 08:26
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2014 08:26
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/6191
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