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Extrapancreatic actions of incretin-based therapies on bone in diabetes mellitus

Mansur, Sity Aishah (2015) Extrapancreatic actions of incretin-based therapies on bone in diabetes mellitus. PhD thesis, Ulster University.

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is correlated with modifications in bone microarchitectural and mechanical strength, leading to increased bone fragility. The incretin hormones, with a classical effect to increase insulin secretion following food ingestion, are now postulated to have important direct effects on bone. As such, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has dual actions on bone cells; enhancing bone-forming activity of osteoblasts and suppressing bone resorption by osteoclasts. The sister incretin of GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is also suspected to directly influence bone health in a beneficial manner, although mechanism are less clear at present. The physiological actions of incretins are attenuated by dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4) activity and it is speculated that introduction of DPP-4 inhibitor may also positively affect quality of the skeleton. As such, this thesis evaluates the potential beneficial effects of a DPP-4 resistant GIP analogue, namely [D-Ala2]GIP, on osteoblastic-derived, SaOS-2 cells, and also preliminary in vivo studies on the impact of genetic deficiencies of GIPRs and GLP-1Rs on bone mineral density and content. Further studies characterised the beneficial effects of incretin-based therapies on metabolic control, bone microstructure and bone mechanical integrity in animal models of pharmacologically-, genetically- and environmentally-induced diabetes. GIP and related stable analogue increased bone-forming biomarkers in SaOS-2 cells and importantly, [D-Ala2]GIP was shown to be more potent than native GIP. Knockout mouse studies revealed that both GIPR and GLP-1R signaling are important for optimum bone mass. All diabetic mouse models displayed reduced bone mass, altered bone micromorphology and impairment of bone mechanical strength, similar to the human situation, confirming their appropriateness. The incretin-based therapeutics, [D-Ala2]GIP and Liraglutide, in streptozotocin-diabetic significantly increased bone matrix properties, indicating recovery of bone strength at the tissue level. The beneficial effects of administration of [D-Ala2]GIP-oxyntomodulin on bone health in db/db mice were more prominent as the Oxm analogue did not only improve bone strength at tissue level, but also at whole-bone level. These modifications were independent of metabolic status. Twice-daily Exendin-4 therapy improved glycaemic control and increased work required to resist bone fracture in high-fat fed mice. It was also established that Sitagliptin had neutral effects on bone microstructure and mechanical strength in high-fat mice. In xv summary, these data demonstrate the negative impact of diabetes mellitus on normal skeleton development and bone quality. Moreover, this thesis highlights the growing potential of incretin-based therapies for ameliorating bone defects and improving the increased fragility fracture risk associated with diabetes.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
Depositing User: En. Sharul Ahmad
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2016 07:20
Last Modified: 20 Mar 2016 07:20
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/7867
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