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Potential of using cement-rubber chips and cement-sand as additives in stabilised soft clay

Ho, Meei Hoan (2014) Potential of using cement-rubber chips and cement-sand as additives in stabilised soft clay. PhD thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.


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Soft clays fall short of the desired construction specifications due to their low yield stresses, high compressibility, low shear strength and low permeability. Such properties can be improved by incorporating a sustainable element in the existing variety of stabilisation techniques. Rubber chips derived from waste rubber tyres and sand were used as additives together with cement to stabilise clay. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS), bender element (BE), one-dimensional consolidation test; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)) observations, Acid Neutralisation Capacity (ANC), Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and pH were done to examine the eff~cacy of rubber chips and sand stabilisation. Analysis was carried out to investigate the effects of 0, 2 and 4 % cement (for kaolin) while 0, 5 and 10 % cement (for soft clay) together with 0, 5, 10 and 15 % rubber chips or sand addition, as well as different curing periods up to two months. Furthermore, the stringently controlled laboratory tests were complemented with semi-controlled test and field tests on the optimum strength mixtureSobtained from the laboratory test result (viz. for SC-10C-5R and SC-1 OC-1 5s). An analytical comparison was made of the philosophy of the three different environmental methods of the stabilised soil testing, i.e, laboratory-controlled, semi-controlled and field test. Overall, it was found that both rubber chips and sand improve the stifkess and unconfined compressive strength of the untreated soft clay. The waste tyre rubber chips used in the study developed only a slight increase (viz. 20 % for kaolin and 4 % for soft clay) in soil stiffness and therefore the economic potential of its use as a soil stabiliser is not so promising provided more cement, rubber chips and sand were added. ANC9 of the stabilised clay were all lower than 1 meq/g, hence these stabilised clays do not necessarily be disposed at a segregated landfill. Also there was no leaching of heavy metals from the rubber chips was observed.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) > TA703-711 Engineering geology. Rock mechanics. Soil mechanics.
Depositing User: Normajihan Abd. Rahman
Date Deposited: 30 May 2016 07:59
Last Modified: 30 May 2016 07:59
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/8054
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