Modified rice husk and activated carbon filters for the removal of organics and heavy metals in water

Garba, Abdurrahman (2017) Modified rice husk and activated carbon filters for the removal of organics and heavy metals in water. PhD thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.

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Abstract

Discharge of untreated industrial effluents containing heavy metals and organics is hazardous to the environment because of their toxicity and persistent nature. At the same time, agricultural waste poses disposal challenges, which can be converted into value added products like adsorbents that could serve as tools for contaminants abatement. Previous findings proved that, adsorption was a sustainable, economical and lucrative separation technique for the removal of such contaminants. This thesis presents the fabrication of a filter for the removal of organics and heavy metals in water which was prepared from treated rice husk and modified activated carbon (AC). The analysis of AC via Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and scanning electron microscopy evidenced porosity of 707 m2/g as surface and a pore volume of 0.31 cm3/g. The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis proved that AC contain 48.7% carbon, while the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the surface contains functional groups such as O-H, C=C, C-O, C-O-C and C-H. The experimental results were fitted with fixed-bed adsorption models to understand the adsorbate-adsorbent relationship. Fixed-bed adsorption studies show that, the highest adsorption capacity of 248.2 mg/g and 234.12 mg/g for BPA and phenol respectively was obtained at 250 mg/L concentration and 9 mL/min flow rate. The results also revealed 73 % and 87 % as the highest removal capacity for heavy metal Pb and Cd respectively at 20 mg/L concentration and 9 mL/min flow rate. For sustainability, regeneration of the spent AC was carried out in a microwave which showed 75% yield after five cycles, while the rice husk was eluted with 0.1M hydrogen chloride and 37.8% efficiency was achieved after three successive cycles. The UV lamp incorporated in the filter shows total inactivation of E. coli after 7 minutes.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Subjects:Q Science > QD Chemistry
ID Code:10206
Deposited By:Mr. Mohammad Shaifulrip Ithnin
Deposited On:02 Jul 2018 11:08
Last Modified:02 Jul 2018 11:08

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