Behavior of schmutzdecke with varied filtration rates of slow sand filter to remove total coliforms

matuzahroh, Ni’ and Fitriani, Nurina and Ardiyanti, Putri Eka and Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo and Budiyanto, Wahid Dian and Isnadina, Dwi Ratri Mitha and Wahyudianto, Febri Eko and Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya Saphira (2020) Behavior of schmutzdecke with varied filtration rates of slow sand filter to remove total coliforms. Heliyon, 6 (4). pp. 1-7. ISSN 2405-8440

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The previous research showed that slow sand filtration (SSF) can remove the total coli by approximately 99% because of the schmutzecke layer in the filter. The presented study aimed to complete the previous research on SSF, especially on the schmuztdecke layer mechanism, to remove total coli. Total coli is a parameter of water quality standard in Indonesia, and the behavior of schmutzdecke affects the total coli removal. In the present study, the raw water from Amprong River was treated using horizontal roughing filter (HRF) and SSF. The variations in SSF rate used were 0.2 and 0.4 m/h. Total coliforms were analyzed using the most probable number test, and schmutzdecke visualization was conducted through scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX). The best coliform concentration in water treated by the combination of HRF and SSF was 4,386 colonies per 100 mL of sample using the filtration rate of 0.2 m/h, and its removal efficiency was 99.60%. However, the quality of water treated by the combination of HRF and SSF did not meet the drinking water quality standard because the removal of total coli must be 100%. The SEM–EDX visualization results in schmutzdecke showed that the average bacteria in the schmutzdecke layer were small, white, opaque, and circular, with entire edge and flat elevation. The Gram test results showed that the schmutzdecke bacteria consisted of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with basil as the common cell form.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Chemical engineering; Environmental science; Environmental analysis; Environmental engineering; Water treatment; Waste; Water quality; Drinking water; Schmutzdecke; Slow sand filter; Total coliforms
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment > Department of Civil Engineering : Water and Environmental Engineering
Depositing User: Miss Afiqah Faiqah Mohd Hafiz
Date Deposited: 26 Jan 2022 04:45
Last Modified: 26 Jan 2022 04:45

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