Evaluation on performance and environmental impacts of the revived industrial lead-acid batteries

Ibrahim, Noor Saidatul Maya (2022) Evaluation on performance and environmental impacts of the revived industrial lead-acid batteries. Masters thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia.


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In Malaysia, various types of batteries have evolved, as the energy revolution from internal combustion engines to electric motors continues to progress due to increased environmental awareness. The lead-acid battery is one of the preferred choices to run the electric motor for industrial applications, such as electric forklifts and golf carts. However, the problem with lead-acid batteries is that their performance degrades over time, as the internal resistance of the battery increases due to the presence of lead sulphates (PbSO4) . Low-capacity batteries are recycled through the pyrometallurgical method contributing to carbon emissions (kgCO2e). As an alternative, regeneration technology has been introduced to revive low-capacity batteries using high-current pulses of up to 450 A to dissolve lead sulphates on the plates. The results from the experimental work that has been conducted, this technology can enhance battery capacity up to 96% and can also improve battery longevity. Using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method, this study evaluated the carbon footprints (kgCO2e) of recycling and reviving lead-acid batteries. The carbon footprints (kgCO2e) were evaluated gate-to-gate with a functional unit of 1,315 kg lead-acid batteries. The findings from SimaPro simulator software show that recycling a lead-acid battery generated 131% more carbon footprints (kgCO2e) than from reviving it. Besides that, the process and environmental costs of both methods were compared using the environmental life-cycle costing (E-LCC) approach. The comparative results from the SimaPro simulator software show that reviving lead-acid batteries was 79% more economical than recycling them. Lastly, in response to environmental awareness, this study proposed a policy framework for lead-acid battery distribution and waste management to assist in handling the batteries.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering > Department of Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Mrs. Sabarina Che Mat
Date Deposited: 07 Feb 2023 03:44
Last Modified: 07 Feb 2023 03:44
URI: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/8291

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